Each individual province has rather high autonomy, with an elected "Strategos" to administrate the region. While the Stategos run the individual provinces, a council of 150 elected representatives (Senators, 3 for each province) who create federal legislation that bind all of the confederation. The Senate creates federal legislation regarding foreign policy, military decisions, federal taxes, the creation of federal projects (I.E continental bullet trains), and some economic decisions regarding subsidies. Each piece of legislation goes through a 2/3rd vote by the Senators before it goes to the Council of Strategos for a simple 1/2th vote.
For all other legislation that binds each and every single member-state, a referendum in which the majority vote from the populous wins.
Regarding the Head of the Confederation, the Council of Strategos appoint a military officer as the head of state. This officer, known as the Archon or Grand Commandant, acts at the face of the nation. He makes all military decisions at the behest of the Senate. He/She also drafts treaties that are voted upon by the Senate and can veto legislation (at which the Council of Strategos can vote to overturn this decision).
Regarding the Judicial System, I would prefer that every and all Judicial position is an elected position. The Grand Tribunal votes upon the constitutionality of various legislation and resolve some issues between member-states.
The federal military will train and work with local militias within the Confederation.
Regarding the preferred economics of my system, I agree with a more Dirigist approach; substantial state investment within the economy is important for many sectors such as Energy. State investment should be going into companies researching in engineering, bioengineering/biotechnical engineering, aeronautics, alternative energy sources, transportation, and various infrastructure technologies.
The creation of state corporations of utilities to ensure fairness between every individual. And preferably, the creation of local healthcare institutions with federal funding would be preferable in the US's healthcare situation.
Regarding the taxes, I believe the Corporate Tax rate should be 25% with the removal of loopholes and tax deductions for bigger corporations. Regarding the Estate Tax, it should be a progressive tax ranging from 35% to 50%. Income tax brackets should be from 0% for the poorest (under $12000) to 50% ($5000000+). The creation of tariffs for the seedling sectors of the economy would be for the best for the American people.
On international trade agreements, I believe that they do benefit the nation, but we must look at their content and back-out if the particular agreement isn't benefiting us. TPP has way too many hidden provisions, some of which give individual corporations more power than a state within this agreement, and NAFTA isn't as great as we thought it would be.
Regarding the Welfare system, I believe that for someone to receive their benefits, they must be looking for a job, education, vocational training or other career training. If they do not receive a job within 1 year, they can get a job at a federal infrastructure firm to keep their benefits.
Labor Unions must be protected by the state, however, the individual should not be forced into the unions and the unions and other NGOs should be unable to donate to political campaigns or give campaign gifts.
Regarding education and science, state funding into science, is of course, quite important. Common Core and other standardized testing standards should be replaced with a system based on teaching on each individual's ability. Also, funding should be based on federal taxes and not property taxes to ensure the same quality of education.
Any laws regulating the private lives of the citizens (I.E homosexuality, ideological opinions, etc) should be completely banned within the Confederation. The 4th Amendment also applies to all electronic data. Any and all speech, with the exception of speech that incites violence or potential to cause death (yelling fire in a crowded theater), should not be barred by the state. Handguns should require a training license, but other firearms shouldn't and gun show loopholes should be removed. Also, with conscription, the military (or militia) should arm the populous with a semi-automatic service rifle after their 2 year mandatory service.
Regarding immigration, illegal immigration should be strictly controlled. Any and all immigrants who serve the military (be it illegal or non-illegal) should be granted citizenship. Otherwise, the immigration system of the US should be closer to that of the 10 point system of Australia.
Regarding nationalism, civic nationalism should be used to unify my divided country once more. Nationalism based on citizenship should be important; each immigrant must know fluent English and assimilate to our political values (not ideology, but general values such as equal rights) and take a strict citizenship test or serve the military to become a citizen. Every immigrant with dual-citizenship that is under 18 must strip one of their citizenships once they become 18.
So, what am I, PoFo?