Do you Believe Human Bio Diversity will Increase or Decrease in the Future? - Politics | PoFo

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Do you Believe Human Bio Diversity will Increase or Decrease in the Future?

1. Humans will become one genetically homogeneous race in the future
No votes
2. Humans will become less diverse in the future
No votes
3. No significant change
4. Human diversity will continue to increase
5. There will be as many races as there are individuals
6. Other
In the near future we can expect the colonisation of real estate beyond earth as well as currently wild real estate on earth (oceans, deserts, tundra, artic) facilitated by genetic engineering and of course natural selection, which never lets up, as much if not more than terraforming which is much more expensive compared with bioforming. There really is no possibility a native martian or titanian a thousand years hence will not be extremely divergent, genetically and phenotypically, from what we might consider the human normal here on earth now.

Dozens of human haplotypes emerged in 40,000 years before the end of the Ice Age but it has been relatively stable in the last 10,000 years. A human genome accumulates around 64 new mutations per generation due to random errors in DNA replication. Mutations can accrue along a certain segment of both Y chromosomes and mtDNA and remain fixed in place on the DNA, thus forming Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups. The human mutation rate has been slowing down and humans are unlikely to diversify as rapidly as they did in the past.

In the absence of a generation-time effect, the observed decrease in hominoid substitution rates must be due to either a decrease in the per-cell-division mutation rate or a decrease in the germline cell division rate. The predictions laid out in figure 1 show that decreased rates of cell division would lead to lower values of α, which is contrary to the observed trends. Therefore, the data imply that there has been a decrease in the per-cell-division mutation rate (µc) in hominoids and that this rate is further decreasing in humans.

On the other hand, because the per-generation mutation rate (µg) is determined by the accumulation of mutations across many germline cell divisions, consideration of recent demographic shifts in human populations suggests that µg is actually increasing. In essence, the increased rate is simply a result of increases in the average human generation time, which is much longer now (25–30 years; Fenner 2005) than it was in archaic humans (18–19 years; Hemmer 2007). Even within the last 40 years, data from developed countries show an increasing average generation time for both females (Bongaarts 2001) and males (Svensson et al. 2011). Taken together with the fact that mutation rates increase with paternal age, these increases in generation time result in higher per-generation mutation rates.

Experimental manipulation of the age at reproduction in mutation-accumulation experiments has shown that increased generation times result in increased µg (Latta et al. 2013). In particular, increased generation times lead to increased per-generation deleterious mutation rates and increased variance in fitness among individuals. If similar increases in the variance in fitness among humans occur as a result of increases in µg, such changes may have important consequences for understanding the ongoing evolution of human health (cf. Nesse and Williams 1994; Stearns and Koella 2007).
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