- 1. The Reichwehr's commitment to advancing its own political agenda over the continued existence of the Republic, especially as manifested in its harsher treatment of leftist elements and gentler treatment of rightist elements.
2. The existence of Article 48, which allowed for the suspension of the Reichstag.
3. The collusion of center-right parties with far-right, antirepublican parties (see, e.g., von Papen).
4. Infighting on the left, particularly between the KPD and the SPD.
5. French aggression in attempting to enforce the Treaty of Versailles.
6. The inaccurate perception by centrists that the left posed a greater threat to the Republic than the right.
To what extent do you see these elements playing out in the United States or other nations? Certainly we are seeing the rise of the far-right in the United States and elsewhere--for example, the Front National made it to the run-off election for the first time since 2002, the election of Donald Trump in the United States, Brexit and the rise of UKIP, and so on. Both in the United States and the UK, center-right elements have continued to cooperate with far-right elements. There is also substantial infighting on the left, particularly on the part of centrist elements which are trying to suppress the center-left and left.