The most futile rebellion in history - Shakushain - Page 3 - Politics Forum.org | PoFo

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Early modern era & beginning of the modern era. Exploration, enlightenment, industrialisation, colonisation & empire (1492 - 1914 CE).
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#14282113
Potemkin wrote:In that case, you won't mind if the Royal Navy bombards Kagoshima, will you?



Move on. I don´t mind. Last time they did their own cannons exploded. That attack left 5 dead japanese civilians BUT 3 damaged british ships, 11 dead british and 52 wounded brits. Their cannons exploded because it was a new untested model. Captain Josling and Commander Wilmot got their head ripped off from the same cannon ball.

So you want entertain me with blowing yourself up or what?
#14282119
You're Japanese and you've never heard of a suicide attack?

At Kagoshima, the British provided the Japanese with an inspiring example of a kamikaze attack.
#14282128
Image

The Ainu population migrated to the Japanese archipelago more than 30,000 years ago and established the Jomon culture. The Yayoi people from the Korean Peninsula started migrating to Japan around 2,300 years ago and the Jomon/Ainu and the Yayoi people are considered to be the two major genetic components of the modern Japanese people. The Ainu people are known to have high haplogroup D frequencies (75%-87.5%) and it's assumed that the modern Japanese population inherited haplogroup D2 from the Ainu, which makes up 35% of the Japanese male lineages on average. Its frequencies are found to be higher in northern parts of the Japanese archipelago (Hammer et al. 2005), which shows that the Yayoi migrants with haplogroup O gradually displaced the Ainu and the Ainu were racially and culturally integrated into Japanese society in the process of territorial expansion.

Image
The upper Paleolithic populations, i.e. Jomon, reached Japan 30,000 years ago from somewhere in Asia when the present Japanese Islands were connected to the continent8. The separation of Japanese archipelago from the continent led to a long period (∼13,000 – 2,300 years B.P) of isolation and independent evolution of Jomon9. The isolation was ended by large-scale influxes of immigrants, known as Yayoi, carrying rice farming technology and metal tools via the Korean Peninsula. The immigration began around 2,300 years B.P. and continued for the subsequent 1,000 years5. In Japanese, about 51.8% of paternal lineages belong to haplogroup O6, and mostly the subgroups O3 and O2b, both of which were frequently observed in mainland populations of East Asia, such as Han Chinese and Korean. Another Y haplogroup, D2, making up 35% of the Japanese male lineages, could only be found in Japan6, 12. It was therefore speculated that haplogroups D2 and O may represent Jomon and Yayoi migrants, respectively6. Geographic distribution of lineages explained the great contribution of Yayoi in our results. Hammer et al. investigated geographic distribution of Y lineages in Japanese populations. Haplogroup frequencies of the Y lineages showed U-shape cline with significant correlation with geographic distance of the populations from Kyushu. In briefs, the frequency of D2 lineage increased with increase of the distance meanwhile frequencies of O lineages decreased6. The O lineages were recognized as a Yayoi founding lineage and D2 lineage was believed to be Jomon specific6, 23. Therefore, the pattern of geographic distribution of lineages supported published archeological and anthropological results about population expansion during Jomon and Yayoi period in Japan.
http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120405/srep00355/full/srep00355.html
#14284200
Potemkin wrote:And I dispute the idea that the Papacy lacked the will to politically unify Europe - the various Popes of the Middle Ages tried very hard to unify Europe under their control. It was the Papacy which did for the Holy Roman Empire, which it saw as a rival to that ambition.


I agree somewhat, but nevermind Europe as a whole - I find it ironic that the Papacy in the form of the Papal States ended up becoming, quite in contrast, the final obstacle to Garibaldi's unification of Italy as late as the 19th century.
#14284230
I agree somewhat, but nevermind Europe as a whole - I find it ironic that the Papacy in the form of the Papal States ended up becoming, quite in contrast, the final obstacle to Garibaldi's unification of Italy as late as the 19th century.

Indeed, this is one of the (many, many) bitter ironies of European history. The problem was that the Catholic Church obstinately refused to accept that its attempt to politically unify Europe under its rule had failed, even centuries after it had become obvious to everyone else with half a brain. The Treaty of Westphalia is a clear example - the Pope denounced it loudly and vituperatively to anyone who would listen, but the statesmen of Europe simply ignored him, like the annoying buzzing of a fly in a conference chamber. From then on, the Papacy became increasingly irrelevant, until by the early to mid 19th century, it seemed to any objective observer that the Catholic Church was on a roller-coaster ride to oblivion. The fact that they managed to turn things around in the early 20th century is astonishing, quite frankly. Ridding themselves of the Papal States (or rather, having them taken from them at gunpoint) was a necessary first step in that revival.
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