It follows post contents having deliberatly sought to establish commonalities between napoleonic wars and WWII, and/or NapolÃ©on Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler, and/or raising to the same level the condemnation napoleonic wars and WWII on one side, and NapolÃ©on Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler, can surely be subjects to.
This post is an attempt to prevent readers from getting lulled and lured by the shameful historic orientations and propaganda of some posters.
The following are random excerpts of some of the following URLs. You are invited to document yourself about Adolf Hitler and WWII (no directly-related URLs are reported), so that adequate Â« comparison Â» can be carried out.
You will find very interesting information regarding Napoleon's relationship to the Jewish people.
I personnally consider that regarding legacy, strictly nothing is to be retained regarding Adolf Hitler's Â« achievements Â», although they shall be remembered, so that they are prevented from ever happening again.
Napoleonic wars: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_Wars
NapolÃ©on and the Jews: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_and_the_Jews
List of wars and disasters by death toll(2): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_toll
List of wars and disasters by death toll(1): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_historical_events_by_death_count
Napoleonic Wars casualties*: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_Wars_casualties
*It seems that the 9 million German deaths reported were actually 900,000
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These figures include deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, and atrocities as well as deaths of soldiers in battle.
62,000,000 - World War II (1937â€“1945), (see World War II casualties)
36,000,000 - An Lushan Rebellion (756â€“763)
30,000,000â€“60,000,000 - Mongol Conquests (13th century)
25,000,000 - Manchu Conquest of Ming China (1616â€“1644)
20,000,000â€“50,000,000 - Taiping Rebellion (1851â€“1864)
17,000,000 - Timur Lenk's conquests (1370â€“1405)
15,000,000â€“66,000,000 - World War I (1914â€“1918) (see World War I casualties) note that the larger number includes Spanish flu deaths
10,000,000-25,000,000 - Sino-Japanese War (1931â€“1945)
5,000,000â€“9,000,000 - Russian Civil War (1917â€“1921)
3,800,000 - Second Congo War (1998â€“2004)
3,500,000â€“6,000,000 - Napoleonic Wars (1804â€“1815) (see Napoleonic Wars casualties)
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NapolÃ©on Bonaparte was born Napoleone Buonaparte (in Corsican, Nabolione or Nabulione) in the city of Ajaccio on Corsica on 15 August 1769.
His family were minor Italian nobility living in Corsica. The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, Maria Letizia Ramolino. Her firm discipline helped restrain the rambunctious Napoleon as a boy, nicknamed Rabullione (the "meddler" or "disrupter").
At age ten, Napoleon was admitted to a French military school at Brienne-le-ChÃ¢teau, a small town near Troyes, on 15 May 1779. He had to learn to speak French before entering the school, which he spoke with a marked Italian accent throughout his life, and never learned to spell properly. Upon graduation from Brienne in 1784, Bonaparte was admitted to the elite Ã‰cole Royale Militaire in Paris, where he completed the two year course of study in only one year. Although he had initially sought a naval assignment, he studied artillery at the Ã‰cole Militaire. Upon graduation in September, 1785, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant of artillery, and took up his new duties in January 1786, at the age of 16. Continued later on...
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The French Revolution abolished the different treatment of people according to religion or origin that existed under the monarchy; the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guaranteed freedom of religion and free exercise of worship, provided that it did not contradict public order. At that time, most other European countries implemented measures restricting the rights of people from minority religions. The conquests of Napoleon Bonaparte had the effect to spread the modernist ideas of revolutionary France with respect to the equality of citizens and the rule of law.
Napoleon's personal attitude towards the Jews is not always clear, as he made a number of statements both in support and opposition to the Jewish people at various times. Historian Berel Wein in Triumph of Survival states that Napoleon was primarily interested in seeing the Jews assimilate, rather than prosper as a separate community: "Napoleon's outward tolerance and fairness toward Jews was actually based upon his grand plan to have them disappear entirely by means of total assimilation, intermarriage, and conversion." This ambivalence can be found in some of his first definitively recorded utterances on this subject in connection with the question of the treatment of the Alsace Jews and their debtors raised in the Imperial Council on April 30, 1806. He declared it dangerous to allow so large a preponderance of the Jews, who constituted a state within a state, in a part of the French empire bordering upon the territories of its enemies. A week later, however, he had reached a milder view, and in the same assembly declared against any persecution of them.
The net effect of his policies, however, significantly changed the position of the Jews in Europe, and he was widely admired by the Jews as a result. Starting in 1806, Napoleon passed a number of measures supporting the position of the Jews in the French Empire, including assembling a representative group elected by the Jewish community, the Sanhedrin. In conquered countries, he abolished laws restricting Jews to ghettos. In 1807, he made Judaism, along with Roman Catholicism and Lutheran and Calvinist Protestantism, official religions of France. Napoleon rolled back a number of reforms in 1808, declaring all debts with Jews annulled, reduced or postponed, which caused the Jewish community to nearly collapse. Jews were also restricted in where they could live, in hopes of assimilating them into society. These restrictions were eliminated again by 1811.
Though Napoleon's personal attitude towards the Jews is not certain, he was clearly also acting for political reasons. He hoped to use equality as a way of gaining advantage from discriminated groups, like Jews or Catholics. Both aspects of his thinking can be seen in a response to a physician who asked why he pressed for the emancipation of the Jews, after his exile in 1816:
My primary desire was to liberate the Jews and make them full citizens. I wanted to confer upon them aIl the legal rights of equality, liberty and fraternity as was enjoyed by the Catholics and Protestants. It is my wish that the Jews be treated like brothers as if we were all part of Judaism. As an added benefit, I thought that this would bring to France many riches because the Jews are numerous and they would come in large numbers to our country where they would enjoy more privileges than in any other nation. Without the events of 1814, most of the Jews of Europe would have come to France where equality, fraternity and liberty awaited them and where they can serve the country like everyone else.
During the siege of Acre in 1799, Napoleon prepared a proclamation declaring a Jewish state in Palestine, though he did not issue it. The siege was lost to the British, however, and the plan was never carried out. Some historians, including Nathan Schur in Napoleon and the Holy Land, believe that the proclamation was intended purely for propaganda purposes, and that Napoleon was not serious about the creation of a Jewish state.
Napoleon's indirect influence on the fate of the Jews was even more powerful than any of the decrees recorded in his name. By breaking up the feudal trammels of mid-Europe and introducing the equality of the French Revolution he effected more for Jewish emancipation than had been accomplished during the three preceding centuries. The consistory of Westphalia became a model for other German provinces until after the fall of Napoleon, and the condition of the Jews in the Rhine provinces was permanently improved as a consequence of their subjection to Napoleon or his representatives. Heine and BÃ¶rne both record their sense of obligation to the liberality of Napoleon's principles of action, and the German Jews in particular have always regarded Napoleon as one of the chief forerunners of emancipation in Germany. When Jews were selecting surnames, some of them are said to have expressed their gratitude by taking the name of "SchÃ¶ntheil," a translation of "Bonaparte," and legends grew up about Napoleon's activity in the Jewish ghettos.
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... Continued Napoleon is credited with introducing the concept of the modern professional conscript army to Europe, an innovation which other states eventually followed.
In France, Napoleon is seen by some as having ended lawlessness and disorder in France, and that the Napoleonic Wars also served to export the Revolution to the rest of Europe; the movements of national unification and the rise of the nation state, notably in Italy and Germany, may have been precipitated by the Napoleonic rule of those areas.
The Napoleonic Code was adopted throughout much of Europe and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat. Professor Dieter Langewiesche of the University of TÃ¼bingen describes the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by expanding the right to own property and breaking the back of feudalism. Langewiesche also credits Napoleon with reorganizing what had been the Holy Roman Empire made up of more than 1,000 entities into a more streamlined network of 40 states providing the basis for the German Confederation and the future unification of Germany under the German Empire in 1871.
« Oracle attackiert SAP. »
I like Germans declining verbs such as attackieren.