The fourth industrial revolution 4.0 - Politics Forum.org | PoFo

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Revolution means a drastic and radical change. Revolutions took place in the course of the historical development of mankind, when new technologies and new ways of perception of the world caused fundamental changes in economic systems and social structures. Since history is used as the coordinate system, the suddenness of such changes can be formed over the years.

The first radical shift in the way of human life the transition from gathering to farming occurred ten thousand years ago due to domestication of animals. The agrarian revolution was built on connecting the power of animals and people in order to ensure production, transportation and communication. Gradually, the efficiency of food production increased, stimulating population growth and ensuring the viability of large settlements. This has led to urbanization and urban growth over time.

After the agrarian revolution, a number of industrial revolutions began in the second half of the XVIII century. They were milestones on the way from the use of muscle power to mechanical energy, which led to today's historic moment, when in the fourth industrial revolution production is developing at the expense of human cognitive activity.

The first industrial revolution lasted from 1760 to 1840. Its starting mechanism was the construction of Railways and the invention of the steam engine, which contributed to the development of mechanical production. The second industrial revolution, which began at the end of XIX and lasted until the beginning of XX century, caused the emergence of mass production due to the spread of electricity and the introduction of the conveyor. The third industrial revolution began in the 1960s. Usually it is called a computer or digital revolution, as its catalyst was the development of semiconductors, the use in the sixties of the last century, large computers in the seventies and eighties, personal computers and the Internet in the nineties.

Taking into account the various definitions and scientific arguments used to describe the first three industrial revolutions, I believe that today we are at the origin of the fourth industrial revolution. It began at the turn of the new Millennium and is based on the digital revolution. Its main features are "ubiquitous" and mobile Internet, miniature production devices (which are constantly getting cheaper), artificial intelligence and learning machines.

Digital technologies based on hardware and software and networks are not new, but every year moving farther away from the third industrial revolution, are becoming more advanced and integrated, causing the transformation of society and the global economy. That is why mit professors Eric Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAffee wittily called this period the "second machine age," using this expression in the title of their book, published in 2014. In it, they argue that the world is on the brink of an epidem-like explosion, in which the effects of these digital technologies will manifest themselves in all their glory in automating and creating unprecedented things.

In Germany there is a discussion of "Industry 4.0". Born in 2011 at the Hanover fair, the term was intended to refer to a process of fundamental transformation of global value chains. By spreading the technology of smart factories, the Fourth industrial revolution creates a world in which virtual and physical systems of production flexibly interact with each other at the global level. This ensures full product adaptation and the creation of new operating models and systems.

But the Fourth industrial revolution is not only about smart and interconnected machines and systems. Its spectrum of action is much wider. At the same time, there are waves of further breakthroughs in various fields: from decoding information recorded in human genes to nanotechnology, from renewable energy resources to quantum computing. It is the synthesis of these technologies and their interaction in physical, digital and biological domains that make up the fundamental difference between the fourth industrial revolution and all previous revolutions.

During this revolution, the latest technologies and universal innovations are spreading much faster and much more extensively than during its predecessors, which, incidentally, are still continuing in some countries of the world.

In anticipation of the second industrial revolution is the population of 17 world territories, as about 1.3 billion people still do not have access to electricity.

About half of the world's population, or 4 billion people, expects a third industrial revolution, most of them living in developing countries without access to the Internet.

At the same time, it took almost a hundred and twenty years to spread the spindle (the symbol of the first industrial revolution) outside Europe. By contrast, the Internet has spread worldwide in less than a decade.

Author: Klaus Schwab (C) fourth industrial revolution
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It is a system of combined computer networks and connected physical objects (Things) with built-in sensors and software for data collection and exchange, with the possibility of remote control and management in an automated mode, without human intervention.
Industrial (often Industrial) Internet of Things (iiot) – Internet of Things for enterprise / industry use — a system of combined computer networks and connected industrial (production) facilities with built-in sensors and SOFTWARE for data collection and exchange, with the possibility of remote control and management in an automated mode, without human intervention.
The term "Industrial Internet"is used in industrial applications. Further on the text for simplification of perception instead of writing the Industrial Internet of Things the term "the Internet of Things" in this context will be used.
The introduction of networking between machines, equipment, buildings and information systems, the ability to monitor and analyze the environment, the production process and its own state in real time, the transfer of control and decision-making functions to intelligent systems lead to a change in the "paradigm" of technological development, also called the Fourth industrial revolution.
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MrCredo wrote:Dear friends, what do you think about these new trends?


I think you have found terminology that makes reality bearable for you.
Humans are still totally ignorant of what it means to be human, but look at our new toys.

Edit: Get out of my head @RhetoricThug
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One Degree wrote:I think you have found terminology that makes reality bearable for you.
Humans are still totally ignorant of what it means to be human, but look at our new toys.

As the very conservatively it seems. This is the progress of humanity. It was interesting to learn the opinion.
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WHAT IS THE INTERNET OF THINGS
In English, "Internet of things" sounds like the Internet of Things, or just IoT. Remember this abbreviation, it will increasingly appear in the media and in the vast global network.

In simple words, the Internet of things is a network that unites all the objects around you. To the network of computers, tablets, smartphones and even TVs already accustomed. And what if this network includes toasters, coffee machines, refrigerators, toothbrushes, water, electricity, blood pressure sensors? Imagine how much the world will change if each thing you can manage wirelessly!
For example, you stand in a stuffy traffic jam after a hard day in the office and dream of getting home soon, in a pleasant cool, take a warm bath and drink a Cup of fresh coffee. All you need is to voice all your wishes to your smartphone. And then he will distribute the commands of climatic equipment, water supply and coffee machine. For your arrival and the breather were going to do the air is fresh, conditioning is cool, the tub is filled with water of a comfortable temperature, and on the table will have to wait for a fresh Americano. Sounds good?

But before we fantasize about the future, let's take a look at the past of the Internet of things.
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HOW DID THE INTERNET OF THINGS
Back in 1926, the famous physicist Nikola Tesla predicted that the radio will grow into a "big brain" that will unite things into one big whole. And all this will be possible thanks to tools so compact that they fit in your pocket.

Another man who expressed similar ideas – Soviet military leader Nikolai Ogarkov. He owns the authorship of the so-called network-centric approach to combat. The essence of the principle: all resources to solve a specific problem should be in the same information network and should constantly exchange data. Than not the Internet of things?

But these are all common words. The specifics began a little later. In 1990 MIT graduate John romkey connected his toaster to the Internet. This is the first officially registered object from the world of the Internet of things.

How the Internet of things appeared
By the way, John romkey – one of the fathers of the TCP/IP Protocol, the one that underlies the Internet as such. 9 years after the Internet toaster, another MIT graduate, Kevin Ashton, figured out how to manage industrial facilities over the Internet. Ashton became the author of the term "Internet of things".

In the same 1999 and in the same MIT the Center of automatic identification (Auto-ID Center) appeared. In it, researchers developed two main areas: radio frequency identification (RFID) and sensor technology. We will talk about these technologies next time. Now let us note only that it is thanks to the efforts of the center for automatic identification that the concept of the Internet of things has become known throughout the world.
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THE INTERNET OF THINGS NOW
The key event in the development of the Internet of things happened not so long ago, in 2008-2009. It was then that there was an official transition from the Internet of people to the Internet of things. How is it determined? It's very simple: in 2008-2009, there were more items on the Internet than people.

And then the number of devices connected to the Internet only grew. And at a crazy pace. Today, 20 billion devices are connected to the Internet, ranging from industrial machines to smartphones.


SOME EXAMPLES OF THE REAL INTERNET OF THINGS IN OUR WORLD:

    RFID tags on the animals body
    Bowl for dogs with the wi-fi module, which gives the dog tasks and for correct answers awards food
    A solar-powered trash can that seals the trash and signals the wipers when it's full
    Smart sensors and water meters in the infrastructure of são Paulo, Beijing and Doha have reduced leaks and costs by 50%
    Automatic systems for collecting fines and notifications about accidents and traffic jams
    The fact that there were "smart" things, there is nothing surprising. After all, it is known that progress is often driven by laziness. The invention of the wheel, the lever, replace the levers on the buttons, the advent of remote controls – all of these are came up with, instead of him working mechanisms and devices.

And now many devices from the world of the Internet of things, in fact, perform the same function as the remote control. If earlier the light bulb lit up only after the person presses the switch, now the light turns on and off the programmed computer. And a person controls a computer from a smartphone.

Progress of "smart" things
Lamps have become energy-efficient, they are not included manually, but through a mobile application. But the approach itself remains the same: the person still controls the light bulb. Like most other modern Internet devices.

In the future, the Internet of things will continue to move away from type commands
"make it so" it "must be so".
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PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS
Experts promise that by 2020 more than 50 billion devices will be connected to the Internet. Previously, all of them simply would not have found so many IP-addresses. But now the new Internet Protocol IPv6 gives virtually infinite number of IP addresses. So with the" registration " of Internet devices will have no problems.

Another serious problem of the Internet of things is the uninterrupted power supply of devices, without it they will fall out of the network, and all links between them will be broken. Constantly changing billions of batteries in billions of devices is wasteful, it takes too much time, attention and resources to create and dispose of batteries.

Conclusion: the Internet of things should get your own energy from sunlight, vibrations, air currents. Recently, a significant breakthrough has been made in this area. In 2011, scientists presented a flexible chip, a nanogenerator to create energy from all human movements. So we are waiting in the future for the emergence of completely Autonomous Internet things that do not need batteries.

The third obstacle to the Internet of things is the connection of devices to the Internet itself. It is not possible to insert a Wi-Fi module into each device, at least because of the small size of this device. But here the achievements are encouraging. They created a microchip with a size of only 1 mm2 with very low power consumption. With it, the device of any size will be able to go online.

Finally, the main problem of today's Internet of things is the lack of a single standard. Now the system of one company controls heating, another-light, the third company controls a microclimate. After all, these networks will all come together in one. There are even special organizations that seek to adjust to a single template disparate network of Internet of things.
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WHAT TO EXPECT NEXT?
Full Internet of things with complex connections man-machine and machine-machine will be in this no one doubts. Sooner or later humanity will solve all these problems, it is only a matter of time.

Today 99% of various objects and devices remain outside the Internet. So there is a lot of work ahead of us. Including developers and Tion. We also plan to expand our microclimate management network. Now we are working on an additional module Magic Air, which will manage not only the winners of the Tion O2, but also third-party climate devices.

How will this merger of devices of different companies end? While difficult to say. A researcher of the Internet of things with 15 years of experience Rob van Kranenburg predicts that in the end the border between the real and virtual worlds will be erased. The Internet of things will make the physical world look like a display with an open browser. For example, as in this video:

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