EU Commission unveils ‘European Green Deal’ - Page 5 - Politics | PoFo

Wandering the information superhighway, he came upon the last refuge of civilization, PoFo, the only forum on the internet ...

Pollution, global warming, urbanisation etc.
Forum rules: No one line posts please.
@JohnRawls, economists do it all the time. That's why economists are incapable of understanding the real economy.

The examples of Germany and France are quite sufficient to prove my point about renewable energy. Theoretically it may be possible that a country investing so heavily in nuclear also invests in renewable, but in the real world it is quite unlikely.
Atlantis wrote:@JohnRawls, economists do it all the time. That's why economists are incapable of understanding the real economy.

The examples of Germany and France are quite sufficient to prove my point about renewable energy. Theoretically it may be possible that a country investing so heavily in nuclear also invests in renewable, but in the real world it is quite unlikely.

This isn't something I can agree on, France are investing big sums in wind and solar.

When France was covering virtually all of it's electricity from low carbon nuclear then there was little incentive to build wind and solar. Now their Nuclear power stations are aging, becoming more expensive to maintain and they are struggling to replace them it's spurred on a change in attitude.
As an example France will at least triple it's offshore wind capacity in the next three years. ... SKCN1PJ1T0

"France aims to boost electrical renewable energy capacity - including hydropower - from 48.6 gigawatt (GW) end 2017 to 74 GW in 2023 and 113 GW in 2028, mainly by boosting wind and solar.

Through regular tenders, onshore wind installed capacity will be more than doubled from 13.5 GW at the end of 2017 to about 25 GW in 2023 and about 35 GW in 2028. Offshore wind capacity will rise from zero today to 2.4 GW in 2023 and about 5 GW in 2028, while solar capacity is set to grow from 7.7 GW at the end of 2017 to 21 GW in 2023 and about 40 GW in 2028."
The EU is already the leader in green technology and the fight against climate change. The Commission will shortly announce an even more ambitious goal of reducing green house gas emissions by 55% by 2030, instead of the 40% aimed for at present, to reach climate neutrality by 2050.

European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen announced plans on Wednesday (16 September) to target a 55% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 as part of a broader European Green Deal programme aimed at reaching “climate neutrality” by mid-century.

For us, the 2030 target is ambitious, it’s achievable and it is beneficial for Europe,” von der Leyen said as she unveiled the EU’s new climate proposals before the European Parliament in her first State of the Union address since she became Commission President in 2019.

“We can do it!” she said, borrowing a famous phrase used by German Chancellor Angela Merkel during the height of the 2015 migration crisis.

Our impact assessment clearly shows that our economy and industry can manage this,” she continued, saying EU countries have already managed to reduce emissions by 25% since 1990 while growing the economy by more than 60%.

The difference today, she said, is that Europe now has the technology, the expertise and the financial firepower necessary to make it happen, with a €1.8 trillion EU budget and recovery fund that was agreed by EU leaders in July for the years 2021-2027.

We are world leaders in green finance and we are the largest issuer of green bonds worldwide,” von der Leyen pointed out, announcing that 30% of the EU’s €750 billion recovery fund will be raised through green bonds.

“We have it all. Now it’s our responsibility to implement it and to make it happen,” she added, telling Parliamentarians: “This is our mission”.

The announcement on the EU’s new 2030 climate target was widely expected after reports emerged last week that the Commission President would announce them in her speech.

A leaked policy document, published by EURACTIV earlier this week, shows new measures at EU level will span every sector of the economy, ranging from agriculture to energy and transport. The proposal will be officially unveiled on Thursday (17 September) with a view to adopting the 55% target proposal before the end of the year.

Root-and-branch policy review

But meeting the 55% goal also represents “a significant investment challenge,” the Commission warns in the draft document, saying investments in clean energy will have to increase by “around €350 billion per year” in order to achieve the new 2030 objective.

And while many business groups are supportive of the new 55% emissions goal, others are more guarded about raising the bloc’s climate ambitions.

In July, a group of six Eastern EU countries wrote a letter to the Commission, calling on the EU executive to propose “realistic” climate goals that take into account “the real social, environmental and economic costs” of the transition.

Von der Leyen acknowledged those concerns, saying: “I recognise that this increase from 40 to 55 is too much for some and not enough for others. But our impact assessment clearly shows that our economy and industry can manage this,” she told MEPs.

Meeting this new target will reduce our energy import dependency, will create millions of extra jobs and more than halve air pollution,” von der Leyen argued, announcing a root-and-branch review of EU climate and energy legislation “by next summer” with a view to aligning EU laws with the new 55% goal.

This will include a revision of directives on renewables, energy efficiency, as well as a reform of the energy taxation directive and the bloc’s carbon market, the Emissions Trading Scheme.

“A new European Bauhaus”

But the European Green Deal involves much more than just cutting emissions, von der Leyen said. It’s also “a new cultural project for Europe,” she added, saying an upcoming EU “renovation wave” will focus on making buildings less wasteful, less expensive and more sustainable.

We know that the construction sector can even be turned from a carbon source into a carbon sink if organic materials like wood and smart technologies like AI are being used,” said the former German defence minister.

“We need to give our systemic change its own distinct aesthetics to match style with sustainability,” von der Leyen said, announcing the creation of “a new European Bauhaus” where architects, artists, students, engineers, designers, will work together to give the European Green Deal a distinctive look and feel.

EU chief announces 55% emissions reduction target for 2030
Carbon border tax, here it comes.

IMF endorses EU plan to put a carbon price on imports

If major emitters do not agree to a minimum carbon price, IMF chief Kristalina Georgieva said the EU was right to impose tariffs on imports at the border

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has endorsed an EU proposal to impose carbon levies on imports, if other major polluters do not sign up to a minimum carbon price.

EU Commission president Ursula von der Leyen has presented a carbon border tax as an important tool “to ensure that EU companies can compete on a level playing field” with big emitters such as China and the USA. This week von der Leyen announced that the EU would raise its emissions reduction target to at least 55% compared to 1990 levels – up from 40% currently – by 2030.

The main reason for introducing a carbon border tax is to prevent carbon-intensive production from relocating to countries with lower emissions standards, a problem known as “carbon leakage.

IMF president Kristalina Georgieva on Wednesday called on major emitters to cooperate and draw up a carbon pricing agreement. “The EU cannot stop global warming on its own. But it can bring the world together. A top priority should be an agreement on a carbon pricing floor among major emitting countries,” Georgieva said in a statement.

Georgieva said that in the absence of such an agreement, applying the same carbon price on the same products, irrespective of where they are produced, could help avoid carbon leakage and ensure fairness towards European businesses.

An EU climate mitigation policy published by the fund elaborated on the position: “A carbon border adjustment mechanism could complement the package to avoid an increase in emissions outside the EU due to higher carbon prices in the EU.”

Susanne Droege, senior fellow at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs, told Climate Home it was significant the IMF had publicly endorsed the EU’s plan to introduce a mechanism to avoid carbon leakage at the bloc’s border. “Carbon border tax is a potential option on how to implement that mechanism,” she said.

Harro van Asselt, professor of climate law and policy at the University of Eastern Finland, said several options remain open for how that carbon price could be applied.

“What seems most likely is that it will be in the form of a charge similar to the EU emissions trading system (ETS) allowance price for a limited set of sectors, for example cement and electricity, with importers being required to draw from a separate pool of allowances,” he said.

Russia’s economic development minister said in July that an EU carbon border tax would contravene World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules. China and the US have also clearly stated their opposition and asked the WTO to make the EU clarify its plans, according to Droege.

It is critical that the bloc’s efforts to design the policy go hand-in-hand with diplomatic efforts to reassure major trade partners. “Otherwise there is the real risk of retaliation,” said van Asselt. The EU learned the hard way when it tried to impose the ETS on international aviation in 2012 and was forced to limit the scope to intra-EU flights only following strong international and industry backlash.

Joe Biden has said that if he is elected US president in November, he may introduce a US carbon border tax “on carbon-intensive goods from countries that are failing to meet their climate and environmental obligations.

Biden hasn't been very outspoken on the climate so far. But this looks promising.
Europe is on track to reach its goal of a 55% emissions reduction by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2050. Europe will be the first continent to achieve these goals.

The European Union Is Projected To exceed Its Renewable Energy Targets For 2020

On the 14th of October, the European Commission released its long-awaited report regarding the ´State of the Energy Union´. This is the first time a report of such sorts was made after the confirmation of the European Green Deal, which serves as the legislative basis of the transition towards a greener European Union.

Executive Vice-President for the European Green Deal, Frans Timmermans, said in a press release: “The energy sector plays a crucial role in cutting emissions and delivering the European Green Deal. Today’s State of the Energy Union Report shows the progress we are making as well as challenges and opportunities ahead. The investments and reforms we put in place need to drive the green recovery and put us on the right track for becoming climate-neutral by 2050.”

Commissioner for Energy, Kadri Simson, said: “The National Energy and Climate Plans are an essential tool for our work with the Member States to plan the policies and investments for a green and just transition. Now is the time to turn these plans into reality and use them to lead us out of the Covid-19 crisis with new jobs and a more competitive Energy Union.”

The report shows that renewables in the European Union play an ever more important role and are expected to continue the trend in the following years. A global decrease in the costs of wind energy and solar energy helped boost the share of renewable energy in the 27 member states to 18.9%. The goal of 1/5th share of clean green energy is well within reach for the European Union.

To meet the European ambitious climate goals the report focuses on six technologies that will have to provide Europe’s households and industry with clean, renewable energy by 2030 and 2050. Batteries and smart grids, similar to those build in Australia by Elon Musk´s Tesla Motors company are set to play a key role next to Solar, offshore wind, ocean energy, and hydrogen.
Europe is the leader in renewable energy, especially in wind energy. Japan has already followed the EU's lead of zero net emissions by 2050. The Biden administration is likely to follow. Off-shore wind energy will be the most important component in the future energy mix.

The potential for off-shore wind energy is virtually unlimited. Instead of transferring huge amounts of money to dodgy regimes to pay for fossil fuels, Europe will be able to use these resources to build domestic industries with high-wage jobs to consolidate its position as global leader in renewable technology.

EU unveils €800bn offshore renewables plan

The European Commission unveiled on Thursday (19 November) a strategy to tap into EU's maritime potential for developing renewable energy, which foresees a significant expansion of offshore wind farms and other emerging technologies.

Currently nearly one-third of all electricity consumed in the EU is originated from renewable sources. It is estimated that renewables will produce close to 60 percent of power by 2030 and more than 80 percent by 2050 to achieve the bloc's climate targets.

Offshore wind itself now represents about two percent of all the electricity consumed in Europe, but it is expected to supply one-third of the demand by 2050.

That is why the commission aims to massively increase the bloc's wind energy production offshore, reaching at least 60 gigawatts (GW) capacity by 2030 and 300 GW by 2050 - which represents a 25-fold increase from the bloc's current offshore wind capacity of 12 GW.

The strategy also calls for an additional 40 GW of ocean energies, mainly wave and tidal devices, and other emerging technologies such as floating wind and solar by 2050.

The commission notes that all Europe's seas, from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea, from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, including overseas territories, hold potential for renewable energy production.

The North Sea is currently the world's leading region for offshore wind, with Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark among the EU's leading offshore wind producers.

But EU countries have started to cooperate more closely to tap the potential of the Baltic Sea, whose region is showing an incipient appetite for offshore wind projects.

The Mediterranean and the Atlantic, meanwhile, are seen as promising sea basins for emerging innovations, such as floating offshore wind or wave and tidal energy technologies.

Massive investment
The EU executive estimates that nearly €800bn of public and private capital are needed by 2050 to build new wind farms at sea, invest in emerging technologies and coordinate countries' power grids.

Annual investments in onshore and offshore grids in Europe need to increase to above €60bn in the coming decade and then increase further after 2030, the commission outlines in its plans.

The bloc's energy legislation will also be revised to attract further private investment, but Brussels will also propose better rules to facilitate the connection of offshore wind farms to more than one country.

Nevertheless, commission vice-president Frans Timmermans already encouraged member states to use EU funds from the recovery package to support investments in offshore energy because it is "a win-win for the environment and the economy".

"Accelerating offshore wind deployment will contribute to Europe's economic recovery. The EU could get up to 141,000 jobs from offshore wind by 2030, up from 62,000 today" Ivan Pineda from the association WindEurope told EUobserver.

Seals and porpoises?
Meanwhile, the commission said that the expansion of the EU's offshore energy capacity will require less than three percent of the European maritime space, but there are still concerns over the potential negative impact of this strategy on some habitats and species.

Green groups warned that the construction of wind farms turbines could lead to the loss of maritime mammals, birds and fishes, who are sensitive to noise and rely on their senses to search for food or refugee.

Previous studies focused on the monitoring of seals and harbour porpoises at wind farms in Denmark showed that pile-driving temporarily expelled animals from the windfarm areas.

"We need clean energy just as much as we need healthy seas," said Sergiy Moroz from the European Environmental Bureau.
Atlantis wrote:EU Commission charts path towards 100% renewable hydrogen

Airbus ponders hydrogen’s flying future

These news are the most promising to come out of the EU in a long time. I do not think people yet grasp the importance of hydrogen and how important it will become to lead in this technology. My prediction is that eventually hydrogen will become the only commercial source of energy.
noemon wrote:These news are the most promising to come out of the EU in a long time. I do not think people yet grasp the importance of hydrogen and how important it will become to lead in this technology. My prediction is that eventually hydrogen will become the only commercial source of energy.

Well it depends if it will be economically viable or better than other sources.
My prediction is that electric batteries will never replace combustion engines in a significant way(.ie beyond the critical mass territory). Combustion engines will in the short & medium term become very efficient hybrids and in the long term their fuel will be hydrogen only.
noemon wrote:These news are the most promising to come out of the EU in a long time. I do not think people yet grasp the importance of hydrogen and how important it will become to lead in this technology. My prediction is that eventually hydrogen will become the only commercial source of energy.

It's important to pursue different technologies because nobody knows which technology will win in the end.

Green Flamingo: Portugal hopes to export green hydrogen to EU

Thanks to Portugal's high sun exposure, the nation has the potential to produce green hydrogen for Europe. The EU-backed Green Flamingo initiative may enable it to ship the green gas from the port of Sines to Rotterdam.


Flamingo, dragon and octopus
The European Union is supporting the project. Green Flamingo is one of several initiatives aimed at helping Brussels meet its new climate protection and energy safety objectives. The bloc's hydrogen strategy as presented in July of this year involves creating an additional electrolysis capacity of 40,000 megawatts by 2030. Several projects are named after a color and an animal.

Besides Green Flamingo, there's also Black Horse, White Dragon and Green Octopus. The European Commission has declared these initiatives Important Projects of Common European Interest (ICPEIs).

When it comes to importing green hydrogen, countries such as Germany have traditionally set their eyes on northern Africa. According to Christoph Hebling from the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), that's an important option, but another one would be "to consider Portugal and Spain because of their attractive solar irradiance conditions," he told DW.

Solar power for a song
Portugal can be credited for its low prices. A photovoltaic (PV) capacity auction in the summer registered a final price of 1.1 eurocents per KWh, showing the most favorable result across the whole of Europe. Such a low price level wouldn't be required at all, though, given current electricity prices of around 4 cents per kWh.

"With a solar power price of 1 cent per kWh, electricity producers hardly earn any money," Rechter told DW. "Instead, they're putting pressure on suppliers and researchers — that's unhealthy because we need to set up our own green-hydrogen and PV industry in Europe so as not to be completely dependent on supplies from China and other [non-EU] nations."

At the moment, a solar power price between 2 and 3 cents per kWh would make this possible, according to Rechter, who adds that a price between 1 and 2 cents per kWh will be economically feasible by 2030.


Solar energy is already cheaper than energy from fossil fuels; however, the greatest potential for renewable energy is in off-shore wind farms. The potential for floating off-shore wind turbines is virtually unlimited.
Aside from renewable energy, the circular economy and the development of new materials from organic sources that can regrow and that can be biodegradable are some of the most important components for achieving a green economy. The EU is leading the way in all of these fields.

EU project advancing hemp, wood bio-materials for key industries

An EU funded research & innovation project says it has made progress developing fully bio-based composites from hemp and wood feedstock for the automotive, aeronautics and audio sectors.

The SSUCHY (Sustainable Structural and Multifunctional Biocomposites from Hybrid Natural Fibres and Bio-based Polymers) project aims to demonstrate the potential for transforming traditional materials and products by substituting fossil-based components with bio-based raw materials.

The initiative is working to improve load-bearing resistance, weight reduction, enhanced durability, vibration damping, vibro-acoustic control and fire retardancy in wood- and hemp fiber-based products.

Reinforced woven hemp
SSUCHY said progress has been made in cultivation and primary and secondary processing steps to obtain high-quality reinforced woven hemp fabrics for structural applications.

Two prototypes, a “green” loudspeaker and a bio-based aircraft cockpit panel have been developed so far, and the initiative expects to produce prototypes of a bio-based electrical scooter and hemp-based trunk load-floor for the automotive sector by mid-2021.

TRL standards
SSUCHY is working to a range of Technology Readiness Levels, standards for consistency and technical maturity in different types of applications. The standards were developed by the U.S. Department of Defense. It was later adopted by the European Space Agency, has been embraced by the EU’s Horizon 2020 technology innovation program, and factors into some ISO international production standards.

SSUCHY covers the overall value chain, starting from biomass supply to processing and transformation processes involving plant fiber reinforcement, and the design and manufacturing of composite sandwich materials via prototyping.

Training planned
The project is expected to complete the production and testing of its full range of demonstration products in the next year, and will organize courses to train Master and PhD students based on recent findings in natural fiber.

Administrators say a web of interconnected EU regional economies could help in the development of short supply chains and local feedstocks to meet demand for locally produced goods.

17 partners
The SSUCHY Consortium counts 17 partners from 7 European Countries, including academia, SMEs and industrial groups.

French partners include the Université de Franche-Comté, the project coordinator; the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique; École Nationale Supérieure Arts & Industries Textiles; IAR, a French Bioeconomy Cluster; École Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Tarbes; and the Université de Bourgogne; Trèves.

Other partners are: the European Aerospace Design Consultants, EADCO, Germany; University of Bristol, UK; Wilson Benesch, UK; University of Derby, UK; Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium; Linificio e Canapificio Nazionale Srl, Italy; Università cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy; NOURYON, Netherlands; NPSP BV, Netherlands; and University of Stockholm, Sweden.
The EU demonstrates that it is possible to reduce GHG emissions while increasing GPD.

EU greenhouse gas emissions down 24% since 1990

BRUSSELS (AP) — Greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union have been reduced by 24% compared to 1990 levels, according to the bloc’s annual climate report, but the EU said Monday it still needs to intensify efforts to keep to its target of making Europe the first climate-neutral continent by mid-century.

The EU’s executive arm said Monday that emissions in the 27-nation bloc have decreased by 3.7% in 2019 compared to the previous year, while gross domestic product rose 1.5% over the same period.

Due to the coronavirus pandemic, the commission expects “an unprecedented fall in emissions” in 2020, along the lines of 8%.

“However, as experienced in the past, a swift economic recovery may lead to a strong and rapid rebound in emissions, unless policy gears its stimulus measures toward the green transition,” the commission wrote in the report.

EU Commission President Ursula Von der Leyen, who this week celebrates one year in office, has made the fight against global warming the priority of her term. In the EU’s coronavirus recovery strategy, the commission has pledged to stay away from fossil-fuel projects.

The European Union is proving it is possible to reduce emissions and grow your economy,” said Frans Timmermans, the commission vice-president in charge of the European Green Deal. “However, today’s report again confirms we need to step up our efforts across all sectors of the economy to reach our common goal of climate neutrality by 2050.”

To accelerate the transition, the commission has also proposed that member states raise their climate ambitions above the existing target of a 40% reduction in emissions by 2030, proposing to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% compared to 1990 levels.

Leaders discussed the offer last month but could not immediately agree on an updated goal as reducing emissions by another 30% within the next decade poses a big challenge to many EU countries. They will try to find a consensus during a December summit ahead of the adoption of the first-ever European climate law.

Under the 2015 Paris climate change agreement, countries are due to submit updated climate targets by the end of this year.

World leaders agreed five years ago in Paris to keep the global warming increase to below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit), and ideally no more than 1.5 degrees C (2.7 F) by the end of the century. Scientists say countries will miss both of those goals by a wide margin unless drastic steps are taken to begin cutting greenhouse gas emissions.

In its report, the commission said emissions covered by the Emissions Trading System — a cap-and-trade scheme for industries to buy carbon credits covering about 40% of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions — saw the biggest drop in 2019, falling by 9.1%, or about 152 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent.

“This drop was driven mainly by the power sector, where emissions fell by almost 15%, primarily due to coal-fired electricity production being replaced by electricity production from renewables and gas,” the commission said.
Industry is getting behind the EU's drive for hydrogen.

Siemens spin-offs tap hydrogen boom in wind alliance

FRANKFURT/DUESSELDORF (Reuters) - Siemens Gamesa and Siemens Energy are developing a commercial offshore wind turbine that produces hydrogen via electrolysis, the companies said, marking a breakthrough for the mass production of renewable hydrogen.

The companies are investing 120 million euros ($146 million) in the system, which has not been previously reported on. It is the renewable industry’s most concrete plan yet to capitalise on an expected boom in hydrogen demand.

In the European Union, renewable hydrogen, which can replace fossil fuel in sectors that are struggling to decarbonise, is seen as a way to meet goals to reduce emissions.

Hoping to get ahead of main rivals Vestas and General Electric, Siemens Energy and Siemens Gamesa are targeting large industrial players, including steelmakers, refineries and chemical firms, as customers from the mid 2020s.

“It’s really about developing a commercially viable product,” said Christian Bruch, chief executive of Siemens Energy, which owns 67% of Siemens Gamesa, the world’s largest offshore wind turbine maker.

“I don’t know any other company that combines wind energy, electrolysis and offshore high voltage technology all in one enterprise.”

Siemens Energy was spun off from parent Siemens last year. About one sixth of electricity generated globally is based on the group’s technology.

We have to completely retool the turbine, which has been designed for electricity production,” Siemens Gamesa Chief Executive Andreas Nauen said.

The joint effort aims to integrate electrolyser technology, which is needed to produce hydrogen, in offshore turbines.

We’re looking at our 14 megawatt turbine, which will be our bread-and-butter product by the mid 2020s,” Nauen said.

Shares in Siemens Energy were 2% higher following the news, while Siemens Gamesa’s stock was up 1.3%.

Green hydrogen is created by splitting water into its two components using electricity from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, as opposed to cheaper grey hydrogen, which is produced via fossil fuels.

GRAPHIC-The hydrogen hype - expected demand in Europe


Although most projects across the continent are at pilot stage, the EU estimates investments in green hydrogen in Europe could reach 470 billion euros by 2050 and create up to 1 million jobs.

“What’s charming about our cooperation is that it’s about developing a product,” Siemens Energy’s Bruch said.

The plans by Siemens Energy and Siemens Gamesa are supported by the German government, which has earmarked 9 billion euros to kickstart a national hydrogen industry, with the aim of becoming a global leader in the field.

Berlin on Wednesday said it would provide 700 million euros in support funding to three model projects by 2025.

“Green hydrogen is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for Germany in terms of innovation and industry,” Research Minister Anja Karliczek said.

Germany, which borders the North and Baltic Seas, would be a good location for a first commercial project, Siemens Gamesa’s Nauen said.

This could be 100-200 megawatts in size, he said, adding potential clients must be located closer to the source as the transportation of hydrogen generated by offshore wind turbines will require pipelines, rather than power cables.

“Potential offtakers include industries in coastal areas, such as chemical and steel firms,” Nauen said.

Industrial firms, including Thyssenkrupp and Salzgitter, are looking to hydrogen technology to help them to significantly cut their carbon footprint.

But Siemens Energy’s Bruch said offshore wind turbines able to produce hydrogen are just one of many ways to reach net zero emissions.

“Hydrogen is a key topic but there’s no silver bullet here,” he said.

Glenn Greenwald would beg to differ "W[…]

Now reading

A Theory of Informational Autocracy https://static[…]

@AFAIK :roll: Another person who has no fucking[…]

@Pants-of-dog "historical facts" […]